It is possible to reduce the risk of child’s tuberculosis by BCG vaccination, which is mandatory and is free for all children in the hospital from 3 days of life (in the absence of medical contraindications). Children who are not vaccinated in the maternity hospital are vaccinated in the neonatal pathology departments or in the conditions of a children’s clinic, and at the age of more than 2 months, a Mantoux test with 2 TE must be preliminarily given before BCG vaccination and the vaccine is given in case of a negative sample.
Repeated vaccinations – BCG revaccination – is carried out at 7 years and 14 years. If a child or teenager at maternity age (7 and 14 years old) had a medical challenge or a Mantoux test with 2 TE was doubtful (and this is also a contraindication for vaccination), then revaccination against tuberculosis is carried out within one year after the specified age. BCG revaccination is carried out by uninfected Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) tuberculin-negative children and adolescents.
If a child has not formed a post-vaccination mark (scar) or its size is less than 2 mm, then with a negative Mantoux test with 2 TE 2 years after vaccination and 1 year after revaccination, a second vaccination against tuberculosis is carried out.
For the timely detection of infection with tuberculosis, all children in the Russian Federation annually receive a Mantoux tuberculin test.
Often sick children or children with chronic diseases constitute a risk group for tuberculosis. Particular attention is paid to this category of children, additional therapeutic and preventive measures are carried out, which are determined by the district doctor, medical specialist, medical officer of the children’s institution. In the presence of medical indications, the child is referred for consultation with a TB specialist at the place of residence. In order to protect the child from the disease, adults themselves must be sure that they are HEALTHY, and undergo medical examinations in a timely manner.
Can tuberculosis be cured?
Currently, there are many anti-TB drugs that can completely cure the disease. The main conditions for the treatment of tuberculosis are timely detection through preventive examinations and early treatment of patients for specialized medical care by a TB doctor. A patient with tuberculosis should receive timely treatment in the full amount prescribed by the doctor. Breaks in treatment lead to the development of a drug-resistant form of tuberculosis, which is much more difficult to cure.
How long should a tuberculosis patient be treated?
The patient should be fully treated for at least 6–8 months: for 2–3 months in a tuberculosis hospital, then in a day hospital, and then on an outpatient basis. Anti-TB drugs are very expensive, but they are provided to the patient free of charge. If the patient stops treatment ahead of time or does not take all the medicines prescribed to him, this leads to the emergence of drug resistance and subsequently family members of the patient and others can be infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis with drug resistance.
Resistance to one drug can be treated with other anti-TB drugs. But when there is resistance to several major anti-TB drugs, this poses a significant danger to the patient and to society.
It is difficult and extremely expensive to treat patients with multiple resistance of Koch’s bacillus (the course of treatment is 100-150 times more expensive than the usual course of treatment), the duration of treatment can reach several years and it is not always successful: you can lose not only the lung (after surgery) but also life. Therefore, the main thing is that patients comply with the prescribed terms and methods of treatment and take all the medications prescribed by the TB doctor.